Later work of Louis Sullivan
The economic depression that began in 1893 severely curtailed commissions. With a lucrative offer as designer & agent for the Crane Elevator Company, Adler reluctantly decided in 1895 lớn withdraw from architecture. social security calculator by age
reacted badly, accusing Adler of disloyalty. Adler’s mới nhất job proved unsatisfactory, và he decided béo return béo architecture six months later. His offer Khủng reestablish the firm was unwisely refused by Sullivan, and Adler opened his own office in another part of the Auditorium Building, where he practiced until his death in 1900 .
In 1895, proud & optimistic, Sullivan began béo practice by himself. His temperament was unsuited, however, phệ the handling of all of the phases of architectural practice. New work was slow in coming. George Grant Elmslie, whom he had hired in 1889 at age 18, remained a loyal employee. Nevertheless, he was aware of Sullivan’s shortcomings :
He could be arrogant & unnecessarily decisive … prone phệ give advice where not needed, Khủng good clients … he lost many jobs because he would not compromise his ideals, nor play fast và loose with vital conceptions of what was fitting for the purpose intended .
A simple tabulation of Sullivan’s đôi mươi commissions during the last 30 years of his life indicates the near collapse of his practice .
Among the few major commissions Sullivan received was the one for the Schlesinger và Mayer department store in Chicago, occupied by Carson Pirie Scott và Co. from 1904 Khủng 2007. Two connecting units were built between 1899 và 1904, & a third unit was added in 1906 by Daniel H. Burnham & Co., largely following Sullivan’s original thiết kế. In contrast phệ the vertical emphasis of the Wainwright and Guaranty buildings, which are offices, the thiết kế for the department store stresses the horizontal. Particularly notable are the rectangular “ Chicago windows ” — each a large fixed pane flanked by movable sash windows. The elegant simplicity of the upper floors is in contrast phệ the lavish decoration of the first two, which have windows that were treated as display windows, with the architectural decoration forming rich picture frames. This cast-iron ornament is based on a combination of geometric và stylized floral forms. Much of it is thought mập have been designed by Elmslie, in emulation of Sullivan’s phong cách. In any case, the decoration of the building, particularly the ornament end the main entrance, represents the height of Sullivan’s achievement as a designer of architectural ornamentation. Only the decorative panels that once surrounded Sullivan’s Gage Building in Chicago were a match for its decorative exuberance .
balustrade panelGreater plastic richness & a heightened subjectivity are apparent in Sullivan’s work after 1895. His 12 – story Bayard ( now Condict ) Building in New York City was embellished with molded terra-cotta và cast-iron ornament .
As his flourishing years with Adler became a provoking memory, Sullivan grew lonely & difficult. He became estranged from his brother Albert, who was a successful official of the Illinois Central Railroad & who also lived in Chicago. The middle-aged Sullivan became something of a recluse, seeking solace in biên tập & in visits mập his winter cottage in Ocean Springs, Mississippi. His marriage in 1899 phệ Margaret Davies Hattabough did little lớn bring lasting happiness ; they were separated in 1906 & divorced in 1917 without having had children. With declining income, Sullivan moved mập progressively cheaper hotels in an effort bự economize. By 1909 a lack of commissions reduced him Khủng desperate straits ; he was forced béo sell his library & household effects. Perhaps an equal loss was the departure that year of Elmslie, his assistant for đôi mươi years, who went mập join forces in Minneapolis with William Gray Purcell, an architect who had worked briefly for Sullivan in 1903 .
Particularly noteworthy projects undertaken in his last years were seven banks in a number of small Midwestern towns, beginning with the National Farmers ’ ( now Security ) Bank in Owatonna, Minnesota. Sullivan’s work habits had become erratic, và it is known that this particular kiến thiết is primarily the work of Elmslie. It has a simple cube size pierced on two sides by large arched windows. Its walls of red sandstone & brick, which convey a sense of security, are ornamented by bands of coloured mosaic và blue-green glazed terra-cotta. The balance between simple khung & decoration in this structure has been much admired. The square interior was designed in harmony with the exterior : semicircular murals appear opposite the two arched windows .
Another attractive ngân hàng thiết kế is that of the Merchants ’ National Bank in Grinnell, Iowa ( 1914 ). Like the Owatonna bank, it has a relatively austere size, relieved by imaginative, intricate ornament. The facade is embellished with a spectacular decorative frame for the circular window above the entrance. Sullivan’s last commission was the facade for the Krause Music Store in Chicago ( 1922 ) .
Learn about Louis Sullivan’s architectural designs for the mausoleums of Martin Ryerson và Carrie Eliza Getty in Graceland Cemetery, ChicagoSee all videos for this articleExplore the Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, where famous United States architects, including Louis Sullivan, Daniel Burnham, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe are buriedSee all videos for this articleSullivan had bự abandon his Auditorium tower suite in 1918 for a small second-floor office. In 1920 he had no office at all & was reduced bự living in one bedroom, being supported by friends. His workplace came mập be a desk in the office of a Chicago terra-cotta company, where he was able bự complete two significant projects : the biên tập of his Autobiography & the completion of 19 plates for A System of Architectural Ornament According with a Philosophy of Man’s Powers ( 1924 ). He died a week after he had received published copies of these two works. Sullivan was buried in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, next Khủng the graves of his parents & within sight of the Getty and Ryerson tombs, which he had designed. Later, a modest stone was erected by friends. Much later, in 1946, the American Institute of Architects awarded him its Gold Medal .
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