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Unity (game engine) – Wikipedia

Cross-platform television game and simulation engine

Unity is a cross-platform plot engine developed by Unity Technologies, first announced and released in June 2005 at Apple Inc. ‘s Worldwide Developers Conference as a Mac OS X -exclusive game engine. The locomotive has since been gradually extended to support a variety of background, mobile, comfort and virtual reality platforms. It is peculiarly popular for io and Android mobile game exploitation and used for games such as Pokémon Go, Monument Valley, Call of Duty: Mobile, Beat Saber and Cuphead. [ 4 ] It is considered slowly to use for founder developers and is popular for indie crippled development. [ 5 ] The engine can be used to create three-dimensional ( 3D ) and planar ( 2D ) games, equally well as interactional simulations and other experiences. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The engine has been adopted by industries outside video bet on, such as film, automotive, architecture, mastermind, construction, and the United States Armed Forces. [ 8 ]

history [edit ]

The Unity game locomotive launched in 2005, aiming to “ democratize ” game development by making it accessible to more developers. [ 6 ] [ 9 ] The following class, Unity was named runner-up in the Best Use of Mac OS X Graphics category in Apple Inc. ‘s Apple Design Awards. [ 10 ] Unity was initially released for Mac OS X, former adding patronize for Microsoft Windows and Web browsers. [ 11 ]

oneness 2.0 ( 2007 ) [edit ]

integrity 2.0 launched in 2007 with approximately 50 newfangled features. [ 12 ] The release included an optimize terrain engine for detail 3D environments, real-time active shadows, directional lights and spotlights, television playback, and other features. [ 12 ] The publish besides added features whereby developers could collaborate more easily. [ 12 ] It included a Networking Layer for developers to create multiplayer games based on the User Datagram Protocol, offering Network Address Translation, State Synchronization, and Remote Procedure Calls. [ 12 ] When Apple launched its App store in 2008, Unity promptly added hold for the iPhone. [ 11 ] For several years, the engine was uncontested on the iPhone and it became well-known with io game developers. [ 6 ]

integrity 3.0 ( 2010 ) [edit ]

oneness 3.0 launched in September 2010 with features expanding the engine ‘s graphics features for desktop computers and video recording game consoles. [ 13 ] In addition to Android support, Unity 3 featured consolidation of Illuminate Labs ‘ Beast Lightmap cock, deferred rendering, a built-in tree editor, native baptismal font picture, automatic UV map, and audio filters, among other things. [ 13 ] In 2012 VentureBeat wrote, “ few companies have contributed ampere much to the streamlined of independently produced games as Unity Technologies. [ … ] More than 1.3 million developers are using its tools to create gee-whiz graphics in their io, Android, comfort, personal computer, and web-based games. oneness wants to be the locomotive for multi-platform games, period. ” [ 14 ] angstrom May 2012 surveil by Game Developer cartridge holder indicate Unity as its top crippled locomotive for mobile platforms. [ 15 ]

integrity 4.0 ( 2012 ) [edit ]

In November 2012, Unity Technologies delivered Unity 4.0. [ 16 ] This interpretation added DirectX 11 and Adobe Flash support, new animation tools called Mecanim, and access to the Linux preview. [ 16 ] Facebook integrated a software development kit for games using the Unity game engine in 2013. [ 17 ] This have tools that allowed tracking advertising campaigns and deeply connect, where users were directly linked from sociable media posts to specific portions within games, and easy in-game-image share. [ 17 ] In 2016, Facebook developed a fresh personal computer gaming platform with Unity. [ 18 ] Unity provided support for Facebook ‘s bet on platforms, and Unity developers could more cursorily export and publish games to Facebook. [ 18 ]

integrity 5 ( 2015 ) [edit ]

The Verge said of 2015 ‘s Unity 5 publish : “ oneness started with the goal of making bet on development universally accessible. [ … ] Unity 5 is a long-awaited gradation towards that future. ” [ 19 ] With Unity 5, the engine improved its lighting and audio. [ 20 ] Through WebGL, Unity developers could add their games to compatible Web browsers with no plug-ins required for players. [ 20 ] Unity 5.0 offered real-time ball-shaped illumination, light mapping previews, Unity Cloud, a raw audio system, and the Nvidia PhysX 3.3 physics engine. [ 20 ] The fifth generation of the Unity engine besides introduced cinematic Image Effects to help make Unity games look less generic. [ 21 ] Unity 5.6 added newfangled unhorse and particle effects, updated the engine ‘s overall operation, and added native documentation for Nintendo Switch, Facebook Gameroom, Google Daydream, and the Vulkan graphics API. [ 22 ] It introduced a 4K video recording actor capable of running 360-degree video for virtual reality. [ 22 ] however, some gamers criticized Unity ‘s handiness due to the high volume of cursorily produced games published on the Steam distribution platform by inexperienced developers. [ 23 ] CEO John Riccitiello said in an interview that he believes this to be a side-effect of Unity ‘s achiever in democratizing crippled exploitation : “ If I had my means, I ‘d like to see 50 million people using Unity – although I do n’t think we ‘re going to get there any time soon. I ‘d like to see high school and college kids using it, people outside the kernel industry. I think it ‘s deplorable that most people are consumers of technology and not creators. The global ‘s a better place when people know how to create, not just consume, and that ‘s what we ‘re trying to promote. ” [ 24 ]

Unity ( 2017–present ) [edit ]

In December 2016, Unity Technologies announced that they would change the versioning number system for oneness from sequence-based identifiers to year of acquittance to align the versioning with their more frequent release cadence ; Unity 5.6 was consequently followed by integrity 2017. [ 25 ] Unity 2017 tools featured a real-time graphics rendering engine, coloring material scaling and worldbuilding, live operations analytics and performance report. [ 26 ] Unity 2017.2 underscore Unity Technologies ‘ plans beyond video games. [ 26 ] This included modern tools such as Timeline, which allowed developers to drag-and-drop animations into games, and Cinemachine, a smart television camera system within games. [ 26 ] Unity 2017.2 besides desegregate Autodesk ‘s 3DS Max and Maya tools into the Unity engine for a streamlined asset sharing in-game iteration serve. [ 27 ] one 2018 featured the Scriptable Render Pipeline for developers to create high-end graphics. [ 28 ] This included the High-Definition Rendering Pipeline for comfort and personal computer experiences, and the Lightweight Rendering Pipeline for mobile, virtual reality, augmented world, and mix reality. [ 28 ] oneness 2018 besides included machine determine tools, such as Imitation Learning, whereby games learn from real player habits, support for Magic Leap, and templates for new developers. [ 28 ] The C # beginning code of Unity was published under a “ reference-only ” license in March 2018, which prohibits recycle and modification. [ 29 ] As of 2020, software built with Unity ‘s game engine was running on more than 1.5 billion devices. According to Unity, apps made with their game engine score for 50 percentage of all mobile games, and are downloaded more than 3 billion times per month, and approximately 15,000 newfangled projects are started daily with its software. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] Financial Times reported that Unity ‘s engine “ powers some of the world ‘s most lucrative mobile games ”, such as Pokémon Go and Activision ‘s Call of Duty Mobile. [ 32 ] In June 2020, Unity introduced the Mixed and Augmented Reality Studio ( MARS ), which provides developers with extra functionality for rules-based generation of augment reality ( AR ) applications. [ 33 ] Unity released Unity Forma, an automotive and retail solution tool, on December 9, 2020. [ 34 ] one acquired Finger Food Advanced Technology Group in 2020, as it aimed to bolster its non-video game uses and offer extra design avail to customers. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] The caller went public in September 2020, to further expand use of its game engine into industries outside of bet on. [ 35 ] integrity 2021 brought multiple new features such as official Visual Scripting tool in one, a new multiplayer library to support multiplayer games, improved Il2cpp runtime operation, Volumetric mottle for the High Definition Render pipeline. [ 36 ] Shadow hoard and screen Space Global Illumination for HDRP. [ 37 ] For the Universal Render Pipeline it added new features such as bespeak light shadows, Deferred renderer and general effect engine improvements and fixes. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] In December 2021, Unity acquired Peter Jackson ‘s Weta Digital ‘s tools, pipeline, technology, and technology endowment for US $ 1.625B in a combination of cash and stock. [ 40 ] In 2022, Unity bought Ziva Dynamics, a technical school company focused on complex simulations and real-time character creation. The skill was announced by a digital human running in engine. [ 41 ]

overview [edit ]

Unity gives users the ability to create games and experiences in both 2D and 3D, and the engine offers a primary script API in C # using Mono, for both the Unity editor program in the form of plugins, and games themselves, angstrom well as embroil and drop functionality. [ 42 ] Prior to C # being the primary program speech used for the locomotive, it previously supported Boo, which was removed with the dismissal of Unity 5, [ 43 ] and a Boo -based implementation of JavaScript called UnityScript, which was deprecated in August 2017, after the release of Unity 2017.1, in favor of C #. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Within 2D games, Unity allows importing of sprites and an gain 2D worldly concern renderer. For 3D games, Unity allows stipulation of texture compression, mipmaps, and resolution settings for each platform that the game engine supports, [ 46 ] and provides back for bump map, contemplation map, parallax map, screen space ambient blockage ( SSAO ), dynamic shadows using shadow maps, render-to-texture and full-screen post-processing effects. [ 47 ] Two offprint render pipelines are available, High Definition Render Pipeline ( HDRP ) and Universal Render Pipeline ( URP ), in addition to the bequest built-in pipeline. [ 48 ] [ non-primary source needed ] All three render pipelines are ill-sorted with each other. [ 49 ] Unity offers a creature to upgrade shaders using the bequest renderer to URP or HDRP .

Supported platforms [edit ]

one is a cross-platform locomotive. [ 50 ] The Unity editor program is supported on Windows, macOS, and the Linux chopine, while the engine itself presently supports build up games for more than 19 different platforms, including mobile, desktop, consoles, and virtual world. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Officially supported platforms as of Unity 2020 LTS [ 53 ] are :
once supported platforms were Wii, [ 71 ] Wii U, [ 72 ] PlayStation 3, [ 73 ] Xbox 360, [ 73 ] Tizen, [ 74 ] PlayStation Vita, [ 75 ] 3DS, [ 76 ] BlackBerry 10, [ 77 ] Windows Phone 8, [ 77 ] Samsung Smart television receiver, [ 78 ] Gear VR, [ 52 ] Daydream, Vuforia, [ 63 ] and Facebook Gameroom. As of 2018, Unity had been used to create approximately half of the mobile games on the grocery store and 60 percentage of augmented reality and virtual reality contentedness, [ 80 ] including approximately 90 percentage on emerging augmented reality platforms, such as Microsoft HoloLens, and 90 percentage of Samsung Gear VR content. [ 81 ] Unity technology is the basis for most virtual reality and augmented reality experiences, and Fortune said Unity “ dominates the virtual reality commercial enterprise ”. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] Unity Machine Learning Agents is open-source software whereby the Unity platform connects to car learning programs, including Google ‘s TensorFlow. [ 85 ] Using trial and error in Unity Machine Learning Agents, virtual characters use support determine to build creative strategies in graphic virtual landscapes. [ 85 ] The software is used to develop robots and self-driving cars. [ 85 ] Unity once supported early platforms including its own integrity Web Player, a Web browser plugin. [ 58 ] however, it was deprecated in favor of WebGL. [ 86 ] Since translation 5, Unity has been offering its WebGL pack compiled to JavaScript using a 2-stage terminology interpreter ( C # to C++ and last to JavaScript ). [ 87 ] integrity was the default software development kit ( SDK ) used for Nintendo ‘s Wii U video recording game comfort, with a release transcript included by Nintendo with each Wii U developer license. Unity Technologies called this bundling of a third-party SDK an “ industry first gear ”. [ 14 ] [ 88 ]

Licensing model [edit ]

During its first ten years as a product, the pay versions of Unity were sold outright ; in 2016, the corporation changed to a subscription model. Unity has detached and paid license options. The spare license is for personal manipulation or smaller companies generating less than $ 100,000 annually, late raised to $ 200,000, and the subscriptions are based on revenues generated by the games using Unity. [ 81 ] [ 52 ] The yield choice, Unity Pro, had been required for developers that had over $ 200,000 in annual gross, but this besides could have been provided for console table developers through a Preferred Platform License from the comfort manufacturer. The Unity Pro keys would have been part of the other SDK from the cabinet manufacturer that the developer paid for. In June 2021, Unity changed this plan slightly to require any developer reach games on the closed console systems ( PlayStation, Nintendo Switch, and Xbox ) regardless of tax income to have a Unity Pro license or a prefer Platform License Key from the manufacturers. Sony and Nintendo provide this as separate of the SDK, but Microsoft had so far to implement this functionality for their SDK. [ 89 ] The engine source code is licensed on a “ per-case footing via special arrangements ”. [ 90 ]

one Asset Store [edit ]

Creators can develop and sell user-generated assets to other game makers via the Unity Asset Store. This includes 3D and 2D assets and environments for developers to buy and sell. [ 91 ] Unity Asset Store launched in 2010. By 2018, there had been approximately 40 million downloads through the digital store. [ 92 ]

custom [edit ]

Non-gaming industries uses [edit ]

In the 2010s, Unity Technologies used its bet on engine to passage into other industries using the real-time 3D platform, including film and automotive. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] Unity first base experimented in filmmaking with Adam, a short circuit film about a automaton escaping from prison. Later, Unity partnered with film maker Neill Blomkamp, whose Oats Studios used the engine ‘s tools, including real-time translation and Cinemachine, to create two computer-generated light films, Adam: The Mirror and Adam: The Prophet. [ 93 ] At the 2017 Unite Europe league in Amsterdam, Unity focused on filmmaking with Unity 2017.1 ‘s new Cinemachine tool. [ 91 ] In 2018, Disney Television Animation launched three shorts, called Baymax Dreams, that were created using the Unity locomotive. [ 95 ] The Unity engine was besides used by Disney to create backgrounds for the 2019 film The Lion King. [ 96 ] Automakers use Unity ‘s technology to create all-out models of new vehicles in virtual reality, build virtual fabrication lines, and train workers. [ 94 ] Unity ‘s locomotive is used by DeepMind, an Alphabet Inc. caller, to train artificial intelligence. [ 97 ] other uses being pursued by Unity Technologies include architecture, technology, and construction. [ 98 ]

Unity Technologies Japan mascot [edit ]

On December 16, 2013, Unity Technologies Japan revealed an official mascot character named Unity-chan ( ユニティちゃん, Yuniti-chan ), real name Kohaku Ōtori ( 大鳥 こはく, Ōtori Kohaku ) ( voiced by Asuka Kakumoto [ ja ; zh ] ). The character ‘s consociate bet on data was released in early 2014. [ 99 ] [ 100 ] The fictional character was designed by Unity Technologies Japan graphic designer “ ntny ” as an open-source heroine character. [ 101 ] The company allows the manipulation of Unity-chan and relate characters in secondary coil projects under certain licenses. [ 102 ] For model, Unity-chan appears as a playable character in Runbow. [ 103 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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