The innovator’s dilemma and U.S. adoption of a digital dollar

An E-CNY payment sign is put up on a desk in a store in the Luohu District in Shenzhen city, south China's Guangdong province, 11 October 2020.The Shenzhen municipal government announced a giveaway of ten million renminbi ($1.5 million) in central bank digital currency (CBDC). Fifty thousand people would receive the gifted money on a lottery basis in amounts of 200 yuan as part of the digital yuan tests and the trial was in the Luohu District. In accordance with the trial, about 3389 shops including restaurants and retail stores had updated and equiped system allowing eCNY payment in the Luohu District. As of 8p.m. on 11th October 2020, over 1.91million people participated in the lottery winning.No Use China. No Use France.A sign advertising the ability to pay with E-CNY, China’s central bank digital currency, is seen at a store Shenzhen, China, on Oct. 11 2020. (Oriental Image via Reuters Connect)
The global currentness grocery store is facing digital disruption. Consumers around the world are flocking to cryptocurrencies, ushering in a more decentralized earned run average in ball-shaped finance. Governments are taking note and are rushing to develop cardinal bank digital currencies ( CBDCs ) —digital forms of decree currencies built on blockchain technologies. For now, the U.S. dollar remains king, but unless U.S. policymakers take decisive steps to adapt to an increasingly digital fiscal system, the United States risks losing the economic and geopolitical advantages afforded to it by the dollar ’ s laterality of the global fiscal system .
In responding to the growth of digital fiscal tools, the United States faces a classical “ pioneer ’ s dilemma ” in which a dominant allele incumbent must respond to an insurgent pioneer that threatens the incumbent ’ sulfur put. The Biden administration is beginning to address this publish with the sign of a holocene administrator order directing U.S. politics agencies to prioritize the growth of policies to regulate digital assets and to examine the requirements and feasibility of launching a digital translation of the dollar. But until a more comprehensive examination policy model for digital assets is developed—a task likely to take years—U.S. policymakers must work to support the development of private-sector stablecoin alternatives to a Fed-issued digital dollar in order to adopt a more proactive mentality in countering challenges to the dollar ’ s dominance .

The innovator’s dilemma

The decision whether or not to launch a U.S. CBDC and build the infrastructure it requires bears all the hallmarks of the “ pioneer ’ s dilemma ” —the business scholar Clayton Christensen ’ second model for understanding the unmanageable choices facing incumbents responding to disruptive technologies .
Applying Christensen ’ second framework to Washington ’ randomness decision to launch a CBDC, the pioneer ’ s dilemma facing U.S. policymakers can be described like this :

  • A dominant incumbent (the U.S. dollar) garners the lion’s share of industry profits and benefits, but only incrementally innovates (e.g. SWIFT.gpi and FEDNow infrastructure upgrades) to meet customer needs.
  • Meanwhile, insurgent innovators (e.g. digital currencies, stablecoins, decentralized payment networks) enter the market using new technologies (e.g. blockchain) and experience rapid adoption due to a superior value proposition (e.g. faster transactions, lower costs, privacy, flexibility, “bank by device”), but face a “chasm” before mass scale adoption.
  • Larger industry players (e.g. central banks, China) adopt the same technologies both to protect their own business from these disruptors but also to gain market share from the dominant incumbent.
  • Adoption by these large industry players and entrepreneurial fervor by the insurgents increases the disruption’s value to customers, making eventual mass scale adoption inevitable.
  • The dominant incumbent now faces a hard choice: whether to adopt or fight against these disruptive technologies—and if adopting, how to do so effectively.

Alternatives to SWIFT and the U.S. dollar are coming from two directions : cryptocurrencies and central bank digital currencies. Cryptocurrencies ( or “ crypto ” ) are a shape of payment that can circulate without the need for a cardinal monetary authority such as a government or bank and are created using distribute daybook technologies and cryptanalytic techniques that enable people to buy, sell or trade them securely in a decentralize way. These decentralized networks are controlled by no one and enable privacy from government invasion or intervention. Cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, ethereum, and an increasing number of alternatives, have risen in value to ~3 % of the global money supply .
CBDCs use a lot of the same implicit in technology as cryptocurrencies, but preferably than de-centralizing control of money and enabling secrecy, they centralize the infrastructure of a digital currentness, enabling greater control and inspection. A CBDC is an alternative kind of decree currency as an electronic record or digital keepsake of a nation ’ s official currency. As such, it is issued and regulated by the state ’ s monetary authority or cardinal bank. CBDCs are backed by the wax religion and credit of the write out politics. ninety countries ( representing more than 90 % of ball-shaped GDP ) are exploring a CBDC, while nine countries have in full launched such a currency. however, all of those countries that have launched a CBDC are little with specify currency air bladder .

Figure 1: Current Status of the 90 Countries Evaluating or Piloting CBDCs

CBDC “ hubs ” represent the following step in making digital currencies effective for external payments. These hubs can enable clear and liquidation capabilities between bilateral trade pairs. presently, CBDC implementations are deployed on versatile blockchain and other IT systems which presently do not talk to each other. Enabling clear and liquidation of digital currencies requires solving technical interoperability challenges as CBDCs and stablecoin networks are being implemented on a variety show of blockchain or other IT systems that do not presently talk to each other. Scaling digital currencies across borders requires countries to coordinate on these type of interoperability issues a well as address complex cross-jurisdictional regulative hurdles. While this is difficult to do, there are many efforts afoot to make it happen. Switzerland, Hong Kong, Singapore, and many others localities are attempting to build the regulative frameworks for creating the digital currentness exchanges that represent the critical hub for the future international monetary organization .
CBDCs can solve some of the inefficiencies of the dollar-dominated fiscal system. global corporations pay an estimate $ 120 billion in transaction fees every class, and CBDCs can lower these costs. CBDCs can promote fiscal inclusion, meaning those who are unbanked can get easier and safer access to money on their devices. They can compete with individual companies that need incentives to meet transparency standards and limit illegitimate activity. They can help monetary policy stream more cursorily and seamlessly. They can help fine tune and calibrate capital controls .
For now, the U.S. dollar remains the king of ball-shaped finance. The dollar is the global reserve currency, representing 60 % of ball-shaped reserves. The dollar represents one pair in 88 % of global currency trades, 60 % of international bank liabilities, and is listed on 79 % of international trade invoices. More than 65 countries peg their currencies to the U.S. dollar. The SWIFT ( Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications ) -based payments organization is used for more than 50 % of global cross-border transactions. While SWIFT can process currencies early than the U.S. dollar, it is controlled by the central banks of ten countries allied with the United States .
The primacy of the U.S. dollar grants the U.S. government and economy particular privileges, including the ability to print money with relative freedom, issue debt at low interest rates reducing the price of capital both for the government and U.S. firms, maintain long-run and haunting trade wind surpluses. In accession, the SWIFT system ’ south submission services ( “ know your customer ” rules and anti-money launder measures ) enable the U.S. government to monitor ball-shaped transactions—and therefore apply economic sanctions to countries and individuals, a privilege afforded to no other governments at the like scale. As the adoption of cryptocurrencies and CBDCs increases, the benefits afforded the United States by the dollar ’ mho authority will gradually decrease .

‘Stuck at the chasm’: CBDCs still not mainstream

Despite their promise, countries, businesses, and consumers have not so far adopted digital currencies at scale. none of the exceed seven substitute currencies that represent more than 95 % of global modesty currencies have so far launched a digital version. indeed, it would be a tone excessively far to say that America ’ s global trade partners want to replace the dollar ; for these countries, the dominance and enormous liquid of the dollar has both benefits and costs .
There are challenges to mass adoption of digital currencies. To play an effective role as stores of prize and culture medium of exchanges, currencies need to have the trust of their holders and users. Volatility, cyber-theft, and the use of individual digital currencies for illegal activities presently limit confidence and adoption. Building effective cross-border payment systems requires collective action between both state and commercial actors, on standards, underlying technologies, and regulation. last, bad companies that drive the business-to-business transactions that underpin cross-border payments abhor complexity, so any system of digital currencies and multi-currency hubs must be simpler to use and pose less risk than the current dollar-based system .
many of the barriers to digital currentness borrowing would be well removed by the active involvement of the United States and a digital dollar. But U.S. entry into the emerging global digital currentness ecosystem would besides accelerate the very trends that endanger to disrupt the U.S. dominance of the international monetary system .

A big player goes digital: China’s e-CNY

After more than 8 years of planning, the People ’ s Bank of China ( PBOC ) is set to launch the digital renminbi ( e-CNY ) in the approach year. China ’ sulfur e-CNY is presently the most advanced effort globally to scale the commercialization of a CBDC via large-scale pilots and deployments. This includes widespread tests regarding e-CNY functional capabilities, on-line e-commerce usage, ATMs, point-of-sale terminals, hardware smart cards ( allowing fiscal inclusion of citizens without smartphones ), biometric designation, stimulation and subsidy dissemination, and even cross-border bodily process connecting mainland China to Hong Kong and Macau. More than 261 million digital wallets have been opened with more than $ 13.9B in total transactions completed with scaled use cases and pilots across the country .
China ’ south position as a trading powerhouse could side the e-CNY to spur the borrowing of digital payments. China controls 14 % of ball-shaped exports ( about doubly that of the United States ), and many U.S. trade partners now trade more with China than with the United States. ( however, the RMB only represents 2 % of global payments. ) The chinese population are already pioneers in using digital payments, and the country has more than 850 million on-line payment users. Alipay and WePay are the largest mobile consumer requital systems in the world. These datapoints are indicative of the opportunities Beijing sees in launching a digital renminbi, which will be the first base top 10 reserve currency to pilot digital currency at scale .
But China ’ s tug for the e-CNY may not immediately disrupt the existing international monetary system. China ’ mho central bank has indicated that the primary focus of the e-CNY will be on the domestic mainland commercialize. As such, the adoption of the e-CNY may blunt the domestic and global success of WeChat and Alipay, which are the world ’ s most widely used consumer requital tools. There is increasing attest that chinese government policy is intended to preference a government-backed payment standard preferably than letting WeChat and AliPay utilize their proprietorship architectures. This reflects the ongoing administration challenges China faces in its engineering policy—the desire to align chinese secret companies to government policy mandates can limit the identical success of those companies to compete outside of China. many factors beyond ease of digital transactions drive the choice of modesty currency, including currency convertibility, astuteness of capital markets, and more. These factors, specially the taiwanese government ’ s capital controls, will limit the potential borrowing of the RMB as a global reserve currency, despite the e-CNY ’ s potential to drive external adoption .
however, the platform provided by the e-CNY creates an enormous sandbox for chinese companies and entrepreneurs to innovate new services and opportunities ( if the taiwanese government enables them ). These experiments and innovations may create a blueprint for newly application adoptions in other regions ( e.g. the eurozone ) that do not have the built-in drawbacks of the RMB nor the closed PRC capital report. In this room, the e-CNY could spur adoption of digital currencies outside the RMB ecosystem .
Russia ’ s late invasion of Ukraine and the coordinated global response to it may spur greater interest in the exploitation and borrowing of digital currencies. In response to Russia ’ s invasion, the United States and its allies have imposed massive fiscal penalties on Russia, including freezing its cardinal bank from global fiscal markets and banning seven russian banks from the SWIFT messaging system. These sanctions have basically cut Russia off from the international monetary system. other nations may view the ability of the United States and its allies to impose these types of sanctions as faze and invest in alternatives to the existing dollar-dominated, U.S.-controlled fiscal organization. The solution may be a passing of confidence in SWIFT and traditional fiscal ecosystems, accelerating the pivot to emerging digital currencies .

The U.S. government incumbent response to date: incremental improvements

The U.S. politics, led by the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department, initially adopted a wait-and-see border on to launching a digital dollar. The Federal Reserve ’ s beginning published wallpaper on the subject, released earlier this year, did not take a concrete side on launching a digital currentness and recommended extra investigation. The holocene White House executive order on cryptocurrencies did not define a concrete scheme ; rather, it instructed federal agencies to examine the risks and benefits of digital currencies for consumer auspices, fiscal constancy, illegitimate activity, U.S. competitiveness, fiscal inclusion body, and invention .
individually, the Federal Reserve is making incremental innovations to the existing fiscal system. Swift.gpi and the FedNOW message organization ( intended to enable instantaneous transfers ) make the existing payment networks operate more efficiently, but these are calm centralized systems which require those who use them to join a U.S.-controlled architecture .

A path forward addressing disruption and innovation

In considering a naturalistic U.S. policy response to CBDCs, policymakers can take two steps .
first, U.S. policy efforts should reduce the attrition to emerging digital currentness alternatives in the short-run by reducing the costs of foreign exchange transactions and providing alternatives for the under-banked. This would reduce market demand for the digital currentness and digital trade hub put forth by other nations. Actions on this front would include accelerating SWIFT.gpi technical foul improvements and reducing the monetary value of SWIFT transactions. More importantly, providing a regulative framework that enables U.S. dollar-denominated stablecoins to be used in extraneous trade transactions would fill the market gap before the United States builds out its own CBDC .
second, the United States should recognize that plainly improving the existing system is not dependable enough and consider an aggressive access taken from the high-tech “ innovators playbook. ” To put it simply : Be aggressive, be proactive, and do not wait for person to disrupt your business—disrupt yourself .
How could the United States do this ?

  1. Continue to develop coordinated national policy around digital currencies and accelerate the development of the digital dollar, learning from the pilot activities of others. The United States should adopt the philosophy of being a “fast follower.”
  2. Take the lead on global standards for digital currency transactions and regulation. This should include forming a U.S.-led global standards body to set the rules and interconnectivity protocols for dollar-denominated transactions. This would place U.S. policymakers in an influential position to write the rules for the digital-currency monetary system of the future.
  3. Build out frameworks for digital currency privacy, compliance, and governance that reflect U.S. values, allowing such frameworks to proliferate globally.
  4. Establish efforts to develop digital currency trading hubs in the United States. The U.S. government should partner with leading technology companies to build a multi-currency trading hub with an architecture that is controlled by the United States and trusted allies but can be linked to other trading hubs.
  5. Join in the development efforts of other leading digital currency hubs, both to influence them to support U.S. objectives and to learn best practices.
  6. Create an enlightened regulatory sandbox to support the development of the stablecoin market and pilot regulations driven by market-participant feedback.
  7. Create an industry consortium in the United States to build out digital payments infrastructure from common standards to adoption incentives. This might involve a public-private partnership to drive adoption.
  8. Build digital currency issues into foreign-policy engagement with key allies, especially in Asia and Africa—the key battlegrounds for digital currency dominance between the e-CNY and its competitors.  Sustaining digital currency infrastructure centered on the U.S. dollar should be a critical component of U.S. engagement and a means to align our goals with those of our trading partners.
  9. Ensure that the efforts described here leverage the power of the dollar’s liquidity to keep transaction costs low. This can be accomplished by incentivizing major financial institutions and market makers to adopt stablecoins linked to the dollar or a future digital dollar.

U.S. politics policy requires a delicate proportion between market- and efficiency-focused objectives on the one hand and national-security and foreign-policy objectives on the early. Achieving that counterweight requires simplifying payments, reducing cross-border transaction fees, and serving the under-banked, while besides maintaining the ability to monitor global payment flows, controlling access to digital currency commute platforms for the digital dollar, and enabling sanctions against rogue actors. Unless the United States shows up on the ball-shaped play field now and takes a leadership function to determine how these trade-offs will be made, early countries will be the ones writing the rules.

As the United States works to catch up in adopting digital currencies, even a flawless scheme executed with great competence might still lead to a world in which America loses some, if not much, of its leverage over the existing global fiscal organization. however, a inert, reactive U.S. strategy will ensure such an consequence. Digital currencies will render disused many existing standards and rules of the international monetary system. The emerging external monetary ecosystem will be populated with digital currencies from countries around the universe, not merely the e-CNY. Countries will be able to directly exchange digital currencies in a bilateral manner and without going through SWIFT or similar liquidation systems. When the technology allows seamless and instantaneous convertibility from one sovereign currency into another, it changes the hardheaded need for a dominant ball-shaped substitute currency .
The U.S. politics needs to quickly stead digital requital and finance options that serves the needs of the United States, its fiscal system, its allies, and its global trade partners. The U.S. should do so from its placement as a dominant allele economic power and lead the adoption of digital currencies based on the dollar. How to do therefore is not equitable a one-off decision about whether to authorize a digital dollar or not ; rather, it is a long travel that requires building a ball-shaped ecosystem .
Michael Sung is a technology investor and the chair of CarbonBlue Innovations.
Christopher A. Thomas is a nonresident aged fellow in Foreign Policy at Brookings, the president of Integrated Insights, a dining table conductor at Velodyne LIDAR, and a visit professor at Tsinghua University .

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